CSS Evolution: From CSS to Styled Components

Since the beginnings of the Internet we’ve always had the need to style our websites, CSS has been around forever and has evolved at its own pace over the years, this article will take you through it.
To begin with we need to be on the same page of what CSS is, I think we can all agree that css is used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language.
It’s no news that CSS has evolved along the way and has become more powerful nowadays, but it’s widely known that additional tooling needs to be used in order to make css somehow work for teams.

CSS in the wild-west
In the 90’s we use to focus on creating “fancy” interfaces, the wow factor was the most important thing, inline styles were the thing back then, we just didn’t care if things looked different, in the end Webpages were like cute toys we could threw some gifs, marquees and other horrible (at the time impressive) elements over and expect to catch your visitors’ attention.

After that, we started creating dynamic sites, but css remained a consistent mess, every developer had his/her way of doing css. Some of us struggled with specificity, causing visual regressions when introducing new code, we relied on using !important to set in stone our strong will to make a UI element look in a certain way. But we soon realized that:

All those practices became more evident and bigger problems as soon as projects grew in size, complexity, and team members. So not having a consistent pattern to do styling became one of the biggest blockers for experienced and inexperienced developers who struggled to find a right way to do things in CSS. In the end there was no right or wrong thing to do, we just cared to make the thing look ok.

SASS to the rescue
SASS transformed CSS into a decent programming language in the form of a preprocessing engine that implemented nesting, variables, mixins, extends and logic into stylesheets, so you could better organize your css files and have at least some ways of deconstructing your css chunks in smaller files, which was a great thing back then.
It essentially takes scss code, preprocesses it and outputs the compiled versions of the file in a global css bundle. Great right? but not so much I’d say, After a while it became apparent that unless there were strategies and best practices in place, SASS only caused more troubles than it alleviated.
Suddenly we became unaware of what the preprocessor was doing under the hood and relied on lazily nesting to conquer the specificity battle but causing compiled stylesheets to go nuts in sizes.

EM and component based thinking
When BEM came along it was a breath of fresh air that made us think more about reusability and components. It basically brought semanticity to a new level, it let us make sure that className is unique thus reducing the risk of specificity clash by using a simple Block Element Modifier convention.

BEM is good in the sense that you made sure that components were unique   With this kind of thinking some apparent patterns became more evident as we started migrating our old stylesheets into this new convention.
But, another set of problems came along:

  1. Classname selection became a tedious task
  2. Markup became bloated with all those long class names
  3. You needed to explicitly extend every ui component whenever you wanted to reuse
  4. Markup became unnecessarily semantic

CSS Modules and local scope
Some of the problems that neither SASS or BEM fixed was that in the language logic there is no concept of true encapsulation, thus relying on the developer to choose unique class names. A process that felt could be solved by tools rather by conventions.
And this is exactly what CSS modules did, it relied on creating a dynamic class names for each locally defined style, making sure no visual regressions are caused by injecting new css properties, all styles were properly encapsulated.
CSS-Modules quickly gained popularity in the React ecosystem and now it’s common to see many react projects using it, it has it’s pros and cons but over all it proves to be a good paradigm to use.
But… CSS Modules by itself doesn’t solve the core problems of CSS, it only shows you a way of localizing style definitions: a clever way of automating BEM so you don’t need to think about chosing a class name ever again (or at least think about it less).
But it does not alleviate the need for a good and predictable style architecture that is easy to extend reuse and control with the least amount of effort.

Styled Components to blend css in JS (fully)
Styled-components are pure visual primitives that act as a wrapping component; they can be mapped to actual html tags and what they do is wrap the children components with the styled-component.

Core UI for everyone to reuse
It quickly became apparent that CSS Modules nor Styled Components by themselves was not the perfect solution, it needed some kind of pattern in order for it to work and scale. The pattern emerged by defining what a component is and separating it fully from logic, creating core components which sole purpose is to style and nothing more.

Whatever technology you use whether it is SASS, BEM, CSS Modules or Styled Components there is no substitute for a well defined styling architecture that makes it intuitive for other developers to contribute to your code base without thinking too much, breaking or introducing new moving parts to the system.
This approach is crucial to scale properly and can be achieved even if using plain CSS and BEM, the main difference is the amount of work and LOC needed for each implementation, overall styled-components feels like a great suit for pretty much all React projects, yet to test it in the wild but quite promising indeed.

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